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> STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases), important info

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TSshadowprincess
post Jul 14 2005, 09:31 AM, updated 16y ago

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source: STDs

Overview

A sexually transmitted disease (STD) is a disease caused by a pathogen (e.g., virus, bacterium, parasite, fungus) that is spread from person to person primarily through sexual contact. STDs can be painful, irritating, debilitating, and life threatening. More than twenty sexually transmitted diseases have been identified.

Incidence and Prevalence
STDs occur most commonly in sexually active teenagers and young adults, especially those with multiple sex partners. An estimated 200 to 400 million people worldwide are infected-representing men and women of all economic classes.

According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, in the United States more than 13 million people are infected each year and more than 65 million have an incurable STD. Generally, STD incidence has declined in the United States over the past 15 years, although rates among certain populations, including men who have sex with men, have increased.

Characteristics
Most STDs cause relatively harmless disease, producing few or no symptoms. However, some produce persistent asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic disease (e.g., chlamydia). Some people carry the disease for days or weeks, while others carry the disease for longer periods, even for life. During this time, an infected individual, or carrier, can spread disease.

In persistent infection, the pathogen evades detection by the immune system and remains fairly inactive, causing no overt disease. This inactivity is called latency. However, certain triggers (e.g., stress, immune suppression, injury) can reactivate latent pathogens. In some cases, reactivated disease is asymptomatic (e.g., chlamydia); in others, overt (e.g., genital herpes); and in still others, severe and even fatal (e.g., HIV/AIDS).

Complications of STD infection include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis) in women, inflammation of the urethra (urethritis) and inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis) in men, and fertility and reproductive system problems in both sexes.

Possible consequences to an infant infected while in the womb or during birth, include stillbirth, blindness, and permanent neurological damage.

A person infected with an STD is more likely to become infected with HIV, and a person infected with HIV and another STD is more likely to transmit HIV.

Treatment

Viral STDs, such as genital herpes (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cannot be cured, but symptoms can be managed with medication. Bacterial STDs, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, can be cured with antibiotics. Fungal (e.g., vaginal yeast infection) and parasitic (e.g., trichomoniasis) diseases can be cured with antifungal and antihelminthic agents, respectively. Early diagnosis and treatment increase the chances for cure.

Prevention

The only sure way to avoid becoming infected with an STD is monogamy with an uninfected partner. It is important for partners to discuss their sexual and STD history before having sex. Prevention is possible only if sexually active individuals understand STDs and how they are spread.

The risk for transmission is dramatically reduced with the use of condoms. The following behaviors and conditions can increase the risk for STDs:

Engaging in sexual activity when either partner has unhealed lesions (e.g., genital herpes sores, genital warts)
Enema or rectal douching before rectal intercourse
Rectal or vaginal irritation or infection
Sexual activity that may damage the mucosal lining of the vagina or rectum
Tampon use (Tampons can cause vaginal dryness and cellular abnormalities. Sanitary napkins, either disposable or washable cotton pads, are recommended.)
Vaginal dryness (Water-based lubricant is recommended.)
If you suspect you have an STD, see your physician immediately.
TSshadowprincess
post Jul 14 2005, 09:33 AM

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Yeast Infection

As many as 75% of women experience genital candidiasis, also known as vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), candidal vaginitis, monilial vaginitis, monilial infection, and vaginal yeast infection during their lifetime. Overgrowth of the fungus Candida albicans, normally present in vaginal flora, causes an allergic reaction that produces symptoms. It most commonly occurs in sexually active young women and is the most commonly diagnosed vaginal infection.

Genital yeast infection generally is not considered to be a sexually transmitted disease, but it is possible to acquire infection from a partner with genital or oral colonization. Men with genital yeast infection are usually asymptomatic.

Causes and Risk Factors

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is an opportunistic infection associated with risk factors that disrupt the body's natural defense against proliferation and infection, such as the following:

Broad-spectrum antibiotic use
Diabetes mellitus
Douching
Immunodeficiency
IUDs
Pregnancy
Scented feminine hygiene products
Steroid use
Signs and Symptoms
Itching, burning, and vulvovaginal pain, irritation, and inflammation are common symptoms of yeast infection. Thick, white, cottage-cheesy vaginal discharge may coat the vaginal walls. There is no foul odor. Urination and intercourse may be painful.

Diagnosis

Cultures, a pH level check, and microscopic examination of vaginal secretions are usually performed to confirm the diagnosis and help rule out other possible infections.

Treatment

A single dose of fluconazole or antifungal vaginal cream containing miconazole or clotrimazole is typically prescribed. Creams usually are used for 3 to 7 days. Chronic yeast infection may be treated with oral antifungal drugs for an extended period of time.

Most physicians discourage women from diagnosing and treating themselves with over-the-counter medications, because symptoms may be produced by more serious vaginal infections, such as bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Some over-the-counter medications contain ingredients that relieve symptoms but do not effectively treat the infection.

TSshadowprincess
post Jul 14 2005, 09:34 AM

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Chancroid

Chancroid is a highly infectious bacterial disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi that affects the skin and mucous membranes of the penis, vulva, urethra, and anus. It produces painful irregularly shaped nonsyphilitic ulcers (called chancroids, soft chancres, or soft sores) that may heal without treatment.

Incidence and Prevalence
THe number of new cases of chancroid in the United States dropped to approximately 140 in 1999. Chancroid is most common in men aged 25 to 35. Some tropical regions, Canada, and some European countries have experienced recent outbreaks.

Causes and Risk Factors

A person who has a chancroid sore may transmit the disease during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Ejaculation is not necessary for infection to spread. An uncircumcised man is more likely to contract the disease, because foreskin may hinder hygiene, hide sores, and promote the spread of bacteria. The disease cannot be spread to infants during childbirth.

Signs and Symptoms

First signs of infection typically appear 3 to 5 days after exposure, although symptoms can take up to 2 weeks to appear. Initially, a tender bump develops at the site of contact. After 1 or 2 days, the bump develops into one or more shallow sores (ulcers) that break open, deepen, and become inflamed. Ulcers are pus filled, painful, and may persist for several weeks. In men, they are most common at the base of the head of the penis (glans), though they can appear on the penis shaft. In women, ulcers are typically found on the labia and near the clitoris.

Less commonly, infection spreads to the scrotum, perineum (between scrotum or vagina and anus), anus, rectum, and thighs. Touching the ulcers can transfer bacteria to the fingers, which can transfer bacteria to other areas, including the mouth, during contact. Anal sores may bleed and cause pain during defecation. Men often develop one to four sores on the penis, and foreskin may swell. Women may develop ulcers around the vagina and rectum and may experience vaginal discharge. Painless sores can also develop on the cervix.

In about 50% of cases, mostly men, the lymph nodes in the groin develop into inflamed, pus-filled swellings (buboes) that can develop and enlarge until they burst the skin. They drain continuously, remain open, and can become infected by other bacteria. The infection can spread to other parts of the body by scratching or rubbing. A burst bubo can take months to heal completely. Open ulcers increase the risk for contracting other STDs, including HIV.

Diagnosis

The presence of Haemophilus ducreyi, seen under a microscope, indicates the disease. Diagnosis is often confirmed by a culture or biopsy of an ulcer. Although the bacteria do not enter the bloodstream, a blood test is performed to rule out or identify the presence of other STDs, including syphilis and genital herpes.

Treatment

Chancroid has become resistant to penicillin and tetracycline. Regular doses of erythromycin, trimethoprin, or ciprofloxacin are given for up to 2 weeks. Alternatively, azithromycin or ceftriaxone may be given in a single dose. A follow-up examination is typically required 7 days after starting treatment. Healing usually takes 10 to 11 days, but may take 2 weeks. Buboes may need to be drained with a needle (aspirated) under local anesthesia and scarring may occur from those that burst on their own.

Chancroid is a local infection that has no long-term effects. Recurrence is experienced in less than 10% of cases and may result from improper use of medication (e.g., not taking the entire prescription), a weakened immune system, or re-exposure to the bacteria through recently healed skin.

TSshadowprincess
post Jul 14 2005, 09:35 AM

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Chlamydia

Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is a nongonorrheal bacterial infection of the urethra (tube that carries urine out of the body) in men. NGU involves Chlamydia trachomatis, which causes chlamydia. The term NGU refers to the condition in men and chlamydia refers to the condition in women.

Incidence and Prevalence
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), chlamydia is the most common bacterial infection in the United States. The CDC estimates that 3 million new cases occur each year; however, because as many as 75% of infected women and 50% of infected men do not experience symptoms, only about 500,000 cases are reported annually.

Chlamydia is most prevalent among teenagers. Nearly 75% of all new cases occur in women under the age of 25. By age 30, 50% of sexually active women have been exposed to chlamydia. NGU is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted disease in men in the United States.

Causes

Bacteria are spread through direct sexual contact involving the genitals, anus, or mouth. Several types of bacteria cause NGU and many are undetectable during diagnosis. The most common are Chlamydia trachomatis (causes 50% of cases), Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

Signs and Symptoms

Most people who develop NGU for the first time do so 1 to 3 weeks after having sex with a new partner. Symptoms may be similar to those of gonorrhea and include yellow or clear urethral discharge; pain and tenderness in the genitals; pain, burning, and itching during urination; and low-grade fever. Orogenital or oral-anal contact can result in throat infection (pharyngitis) and inflammation of the rectum (proctitis). Some women experience pain or cramping in the lower abdomen, especially during intercourse, and bleeding between menstrual periods.

Inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis) with discharge is common. Notably, most infected women and 50% of infected men experience no symptoms.

Complications
In men, untreated NGU can cause epididymitis, inflammation of the reproductive system that may result in fertility problems. Symptoms resolve in about 60% of untreated chalmydial infections.

About 40% of women with untreated chlamydia develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which creates a risk for infertility, endometriosis, and other reproductive tract problems.

Pregnant women with chlamydia are at increased risk for miscarriage and premature detachment of the placenta (abruptio placentae). Babies born to infected women may suffer eye, ear, genital, and lung infections; serious infection can be fatal to an infant.

Women with chlamydia are 3 to 5 times more likely to become infected with HIV if they are exposed to the virus.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis involves observing signs and symptoms and analyzing urethral discharge (usually at least 4 hours after urination). Urine is usually collected in the morning. Urethral inflammation may be noticeable. If discharge is present, a sample is collected and cultured to determine the presence of and identify bacteria. Blood tests are performed to check for signs of infection. A small cotton swab is inserted just inside the urethra to collect cells to check for other STDs.

Because infection may be asymptomatic, people with multiple sex partners should be tested annually, even if they feel fine.

Treatment

Antibiotics are used to fight the infection; treatments may vary for men and women. A single dose of azithromycin (Zithromax®) or a 7-day course of doxycycline (Periostat®) usually is prescribed. Erythromycin is the preferred treatment for pregnant women, nursing mothers, infants, children, and adults unable to tolerate tetracycline. Recurrent NGU that is not associated with re-exposure may be treated with a drug that was not previously used. Ofloxacin (Floxin®) may be used for recurrent NGU if the white blood cell count is high.

TSshadowprincess
post Jul 14 2005, 09:37 AM

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Gardnerella Vaginitis

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by the overgrowth of certain bacteria in the vagina, including Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardneralla mobiluncus, and Mycoplasma hominis. Bacterial vaginosis is grossly underdiagnosed because many women assume they have a yeast infection and treat symptoms with over-the-counter medications.

Incidence and Prevalence
Bacterial vaginosis accounts for 60% of vulvovaginal infections. Young adult women, particularly those who are sexually active, are most commonly affected.

Causes and Risk Factors

BV is caused by a change in the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina. Lacotbacillus, helpful bacteria, metabolizes glycogen to lactic acid in the vagina and maintains normal vaginal pH, which provides a natural defense against unhealthy bacteria proliferation.

When the defense is weakened, other bacteria present in the vagina (e.g., Bacteroides sp, Peptostreptococcus sp, Gardnerella vaginalis, G. mobiluncus, Mycoplasma hominis) proliferate and cause symptoms. Aboout 50% of women have G. vaginalis in their vaginal flora but do not develop infection.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics may destroy healthy bacteria, disrupt the vagina's normal flora, and promote infection. Douching, overused or retained tampons, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs), diaphragms, contraceptive sponges, and products containing nonoxynol-9 may also disrupt the balance.

Bacterial vaginosis also is associated with having multiple sex partners, a new monogamous sexual relationship, and a history of STDs.

Signs and Symptoms

A fishy vaginal odor, itching, and irritation are common signs of BV and may be particularly noticeable after intercourse or menses. It may be accompanied by a smooth, sticky white or gray discharge 4 days to 4 weeks following exposure. Elevated vaginal pH level is also a symptom.

Complications
BV is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, tubal (ectopic) pregnancy, premature birth, and low birth weight in infants born to infected mothers.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is usually made by visual observation and by smell. A pelvic examination is performed to determine whether the cervix is producing abnormal secretions and to check for other diseases.

Vaginal fluid may be treated with a 10% solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH), which makes the characteristic odor more pronounced. A sample is usually taken for microscopic examination to confirm the presence of bacteria, and pH levels are checked. Most physicians recommend a full STD screening.

Treatment

Antibiotics such as metronidazole and clindamycin are generally prescribed, as oral (pill) or topical (cream) treatments. When used topically, these medications may cause side effects such as stinging, burning, and irritation. Douching should be avoided.

Sex partners may require treatment if infection recurs.

TSshadowprincess
post Jul 14 2005, 09:39 AM

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read the rest here:

Genital warts
Gonorrhea
Granuloma
Herpes
Lymphogranuloma
Molloscum
Crabs
Scabies
Syphilis
Trichomoniasis
guanteik
post Jul 14 2005, 10:03 AM

Look at all my stars!!
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very good piece of information smile.gif
lot101
post Jul 16 2005, 04:47 PM

Apa got sing sing one......
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shadow.....got alot of experience.....nice piece of work though......
Katetricia
post Sep 22 2005, 11:08 PM

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thank you!!!
guest19
post Jan 2 2006, 09:05 PM

On my way
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thank you but very long le...need free time only can read de...
Silent_scream
post Jan 4 2006, 05:43 PM

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Very good information u got there

A lot of my frens (who r sexually active) r ignorant about STDs

Should show 'em this. But it is rather long. Is there a quick summary tat shows Name, Symptoms, What happens to u if u get the dieases, Treatment? Sumthing like how CLEO mag would summarize it
Malaysian
post Mar 16 2006, 04:17 AM

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QUOTE(Silent_scream @ Jan 4 2006, 05:43 PM)
Very good information u got there

A lot of my frens (who r sexually active) r ignorant about STDs

Should show 'em this. But it is rather long. Is there a quick summary tat shows Name, Symptoms, What happens to u if u get the dieases, Treatment? Sumthing like how CLEO mag would summarize it
*
it's better not to know much bout std if wanna do ons

coz i know a lot...make me dun dare to do it altho got chances...
sad.gif
youngkies
post May 1 2006, 08:52 PM

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QUOTE(Malaysian @ Mar 16 2006, 05:17 AM)
it's better not to know much bout std if wanna do ons

coz i know a lot...make me dun dare to do it altho got chances...
sad.gif
*
just make sure ur partner is clean... or condom all the time.. condom reduce risk of STD
fiecks84
post Jun 4 2006, 01:22 AM

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yeah...
too many to read... so lazy! anyway, the info is good
avoid raw-sex, or sex rambang, then u safe lor!
or else, limit ur partner no., never change frequently
or do with strangers! I think so...

WaCKy-Angel
post Jun 4 2006, 01:25 AM

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Duh......avoid (never) have sex b4 marriage...

Done.....I rest my case.
muiche
post Jun 17 2006, 11:46 AM

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Sex is good rclxm9.gif
But play safe at all times icon_rolleyes.gif
dario_julius
post Jun 23 2006, 03:22 PM

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Yup.

Sky jumping is dangerous but fun.

If you want to do it, make sure to equip a parachute.

Same thing with sex.

red-queen
post Oct 10 2006, 04:28 PM

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i think its best to put a condom on at all times. its not just abt STD we're preventing but unwanted pregnancy as well. we have to be responsible for ourselves and also our partner.

theres nothing wrong in having sex(im not promoting pre-marital sex), but do the right thing, put on a rubber. ignore ppl who tell u without rubber more siok la etc etc. those ppl are just plain ignorant. wait till they kena HIV or something then we'll see what so siok abt that.
yeeck
post Oct 10 2006, 07:09 PM

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QUOTE(dario_julius @ Jun 23 2006, 03:22 PM)
Yup.

Sky jumping is dangerous but fun.

If you want to do it, make sure to equip a parachute.

Same thing with sex.
*
The parachute might fail sometimes. Same thing with sex. whistling.gif
red-queen
post Oct 11 2006, 10:45 AM

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the safest sex is no sex smile.gif

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