How We Know What FitsThis article and images are both taken from Tirerack
It may seem obvious, but a wheel is comprised of a hub, spokes and rim. These parts work together to create the wheel. The hub is the center portion of the wheel and is what attaches the wheel to the suspension. The spokes radiate out from the hub and attach to the rim. The rim is the outer part of the wheel that holds the tire. While many people refer to wheels as "rims," this is technically incorrect.
Wheels come in all different styles, sizes, bolt patterns and offsets. So how do we know which wheels will fit your vehicle? We can only do this by first knowing your vehicle inside and out. Measuring your vehicle's critical components with sophisticated electronic tools allows our fitment engineers to create extremely accurate drawings of these parts. We do the same for the wheels that we offer and then use Computer Aided Design (CAD) programs to match the wheels to the vehicles. Using these electronic tools we verify numerous different critical areas before a wheel can be listed for a vehicle.
Items We Measure or VerifyBolt Pattern
- Not as simple as 4-lug vs. 5-lug. There are currently 17 different 4- to 5-lug bolt lug patterns as well as 6- to 8- lug for light truck/SUV.Centerbore
- The wheel must, in most cases, fit the hub of the vehicle precisely, either as a direct fit or with the use of a centering ring.Hub Interference
- Many vehicles have additional items on the mounting surface area that must be considered for wheel applications, these include locating pins and rotor mounting hardware.Load Capacity
- The wheel must have enough load capacity when compared to the gross axle weight rating of the vehicle.Lug Hardware
- By either supplying lug hardware or using the Original Equipment hardware the wheel must be securely fastened to the vehicle.Suspension Components
- The wheel must clear and not interfere with any of the suspension components and their operation on the vehicle.Offset
This is important, it determines whether your wheel will hit the fender or not, and offset helps when you're upgrading your brake system as well
, personally I like negative offset a lot but it will never suit my car perfectly
The offset of a wheel is the distance from its hub mounting surface to the centerline of the wheel. The offset can be one of three types (measured in millimeters).
In simple way, we can say like this, positive offset wheel is hide inside your fender, while negative offset wheel is popping out from your fender, this is just the simplest way to explain but it never give accurate reading.Zero Offset
The hub mounting surface is even with the centerline of the wheel.Positive
The hub mounting surface is toward the front or wheel side of the wheel. Positive offset wheels are generally found on front wheel drive cars and newer rear drive cars.Negative
The hub mounting surface is toward the back or brake side of the wheels centerline. "Deep dish" wheels are typically a negative offset.
If the offset of the wheel is not correct for the car, the handling can be adversely affected. When the width of the wheel changes, the offset also changes numerically. If the offset were to stay the same while you added width, the additional width would be split evenly between the inside and outside. For most cars, this won't work correctly. We have test fitted thousands of different vehicles for proper fitment. Our extensive database allows our sales staff to offer you the perfect fit for your vehicle.
*Backspacing, similar to offset, is the distance from the hub mounting surface to the inside lip of the wheel (measured in inches).What does PCD mean?
PCD stands for (pitch circle diameter), this is the diameter of a circle drawn through the center of your wheel's bolt holes. PCD is measured in millimetres and also indicates the number of studs or bolts the wheel will have. The most common fitment has 4 studs with a PCD of 100mm, hence the fitment 4x100. Check the fitment guide above to check the fitment of your car, if you are unsure consult a technician.Rim Width and Aspect RatioTIRE WIDTH
To accurately measure the width of a tire, the tire must be mounted on a rim. Since a tire's section width is larger if the tire is mounted on a wide rim, and smaller if it is mounted on a narrow rim, each tire is measured on a specific rim width.
For example: For tires with aspect ratios from 80 to 50, the measuring rim, also called the design rim, is specified to be 70% of the section width. For tires with an aspect ratio less than 50, the measuring rim is 85% of the section width.RIM WIDTH
Correct rim width ensures flex at the designed flex point in a tire sidewall for optimum tire performance.
If the rim is too narrow, the flex point moves toward the shoulder area, creating heat buildup in the shoulder, which reduces tire life and could result in failure.
If the rim is too wide, the flex point moves towards the rim area, causing heat buildup in the lower sidewall, which reduces tire life and could result in failure.
Within the acceptable range of rim widths, one can select wider or narrower rims than the measuring rim. Selection of a wider rim, from within the approved range, (T & RA tables) stiffens the sidewall and improves handling at the expense of handling. If carried too extreme, either too narrow or too wide of a rim, it can result in uneven tread/pavement contact pressure causing uneven wear and potentially reduced traction, or increased vulnerability to bead dis-lodgement. Always check with your Dunlop dealer for permissible rim width options.
Remember - safe clearance must be determined for a particular tire/rim contender and vehicle.
Wider rims may offer some performance advantages over narrow rims. A wider rim increases the distance between the beads, which results in a straighter sidewall, which stiffens it. This results in quicker steering response and higher cornering forces.
Negatively, the straightened sidewall transmits more road shock to the wheel and suspension, placing greater stress on chassis and suspension parts and delivering a harsher ride. The straighter sidewall exposes the rim, making the wheel more susceptible to damage.
A narrower rim pulls the beads closer together, curving the sidewalls. This increased curvature allows the sidewall to flex more readily over bumps and absorb more road shock during driving. This offers a softer ride.ASPECT RATIO
Aspect ratio is the relationship of a tire's height to width when mounted and inflated on a rim of the correct size. Aspect ratios are expressed in section height as a percentage of section width in two-digit numbers (80, 70, 60) and are often referred to as a tire's series. For example, if section height/section width is 60, the tire is a 60 series.
This height to width relationship determines the shape of the tire on the rim, and, more importantly, determines the performance characteristics of the tire. If the sidewall height of a tire is reduced slightly, the sidewall stiffness is increased greatly.
Higher aspect ratios deliver:
- Greater deflection under load
- Softer Ride
Lower aspect ratios deliver:
- Wider footprint
- Quicker response
- Less tire deviation or slip angle
- Lower flex rate
- Less deflection under load
- Harsher ride
A tire with a lower aspect ratio and stiffer sidewalls will transmit more force from bumps and irregularities in the road surface. A tire with a higher aspect ratio, with its more flexible sidewalls will provide a smoother ride because sidewall flexibility allows it to deform over the impact area, dissipating the energy.
Changing tires on a vehicle from one aspect ratio to another also influences section width, which relates directly to the load carrying capacity of the tire. The load carrying capacity of the original equipment tire must always be maintained or increased.
Anything that changes the tire's outside diameter also influences the vehicle's overall gear ratio, as well as the accuracy of the speedometer and odometer.
Another factor affected by change in aspect ratio and overall diameter is the tire footprint. Typically, a high aspect ratio tire will have a long, narrow footprint, while a low aspect ratio will have a short, wide footprint.
Finally, tire diameter/aspect ratio affects the input to the engine computers on some new cars, since vehicle speed is an input to these computers.
In other words, tire changes involving changes in aspect ratios should be made in consultation with your Dunlop dealer and reference to the vehicle's Owner's Manual.How to clean your rims?The ordinary simplest way
Step 1: First fill cleaning bucket with water and add cleaning agent that you are going to use (read directions for amount to use)
Step 2: Spray rim/tires in a circular motion with hose and make sure they are completely wet.
Step 3: Make sure cleaning rag is thoroughly soapy and begin washing tire at the top and completely go around whole tire, then start cleaning rim from top working around in clockwise direction.
Step 4: Once done cleaning with rag use brush to get at areas/small crevices that you could not reach with rag.
Step 5: Spray the rim in circular motion following the out side of the rim and rinse the tire. Once done use towel to completely dry both rim and tire and add additional product to tire for finishing shine.
***My own way
Make the rim wet and get a sponge with soap, rub it gently then flush with water, then wipe them dry, but I do clean spoke by spoke, that's all This is some general knowledge:
Once your new wheels and tires are installed, step back and take a good look. The new, sharper appearance will accent your vehicle splendidly. They look great now; but unfortunately, your wheels are often the dirtiest part of your car because they are constantly exposed to the elements (corrosive brake dust, ocean or road salt, stones, cinders and sticky tar).
Damage caused by prolonged exposure to these elements will void the finish warranty on your wheels. It’s important to clean them properly and often.Here are a few tips on how to maintain a wheel's original splendor.
# Before you install them, a coat of wax will help protect your wheels and make them easier to clean.
# Treat the finish of your wheels as you would the finish of your car. Most alloy wheels today feature a painted and/or a clearcoat finish. The best way to take care of wheels without damaging their protective finish is by frequently washing them with a mild soap and water solution. Using a tar and bug remover can prevent permanent tar staining. Periodic waxing will protect the wheel's finish from the elements.
# Never use abrasive cleansers, steel wool pads or polishing compounds.
# Beware of automatic car washes. Some washes use acid cleaners either before or during the wash to remove dirt and grime. Others use stiff brushes for cleaning wheels and tires. Both of these processes could harm your wheel's finish. Ask the employees or manager of the car wash about their equipment and procedures before entering the wash.
# Never allow your wheels and tires to be steam-cleaned. Hot steam can dull the paint and clearcoat finish on your wheels.
# Don't clean hot wheels; wait until they cool. Water dries much faster at higher temperatures. Thus, cleaning wheels while they are hot may cause your mild soap solution to dry too quickly leaving spots or a film of soap on your wheels.
# Clean your tires and wheels first, one at a time. Tires and wheels tend to be the dirtiest parts of your vehicle and have a variety of surfaces to clean. So you will want to use the full strength of your hose to initially rinse away all loose dirt and to finally rinse off your soap solution. If you clean your tires and wheels first, you won't expose your washed car to the over spray as you rinse them. Cleaning one at a time focuses your attention and ensures that the soap doesn't dry on one wheel while you're cleaning another. Be sure to use a different sponge on the rest of the car's body to prevent scratching the paint from the particles that may have collected during the wheel cleaning process.
# Clean wheels on a regular basis. Remember, they're often the dirtiest part of your vehicle because they are constantly exposed to the elements (corrosive brake dust, ocean and road salt, paint-chipping stones and cinders and sticky tar).
# Your new tires and alloy wheels are like any other valuable investment. You should protect them. Clean them as you would the rest of your car. Care for them as you would care for your entire vehicle.